The quilt survey movement in the United States, a phenomenon largely of the last fifteen years, was not conceived as a national effort with standardized goals and methods. Instead, the idea began in Kentucky in 1981 and quickly spread across the country. As we celebrate the fifteen-year anniversary of the state and regional projects, I welcome the opportunity to share my perspectives on this period of quilt project development: where they are now, what they did well, what they might have done better, and what direction they are going in.

The Quilt Projects: Fifteen Years Later

Print this page

Folk Art: Magazine of the Museum of American Folk Art, Spring 1996
Online source: http://www.shellyquilts.com/resources/articles/Fifteen_Years_Later.php

 

Introduction

The quilt survey movement in the United States, a phenomenon largely of the last fifteen years, was not conceived as a national effort with standardized goals and methods. Instead, the idea began in Kentucky in 1981 and quickly spread across the country. Today, only a few slates have not done quilt surveys. Inspiration and methodology for these surveys have been borrowed or reinvented, with varying degrees of sophistication and application of scholarly standards. Most of the surveys have been designed and run by quilt enthusiasts rather than people trained as scholars in the decorative arts, folklore, art history, and the like.As a result, concern has been expressed about many of the surveys' designs, methodologies, use, and interpretation of data collected, and, ultimately, value to quilt scholarship.1

As a founder of The Kentucky Quilt Project, a collector and dealer of quilts, and an advocate for quilt scholarship, I have observed the quilt projects' evolution and their ability to embrace many points of view and strategies and consider the movement to be vital because of the diversity of opinions and validity of multiple approaches. As we celebrate the fifteen-year anniversary of the state and regional projects, I welcome the opportunity to share my perspectives on this period of quilt project development: where they are now, what they did well, what they might have done better, and what direction they are going in.

The First State Quilt Project

The Kentucky Quilt Project, Inc., was formed in 1981 to survey the state's quilts.2 Since then, 56 projects-both state and regional-have undertaken surveys informed by the methods and directions of The Kentucky Quilt Project.3 That first survey took to two years. To gather the quilts for study, we took The Kentucky Quilt Project to the people by developing the Quilt Days concept. We held twelve Quilt Days at different locations throughout the state, so that no one would have to travel more than fifty miles to participate. The Quilt Days were heavily advertised through the help of local organizations and the volunteer effort was assisted by the newly formed Kentucky Heritage Quilt Society. We created what became the magic of Quilt Days. Quilts that had been "hiding" in closets, trunks, and cupboards were raised to a hanging position-many seen on the wall for the first time-and lectures were presented about preservation and donation of quilts to museums within the state.

We had a one-page documentation sheet and took a brief oral history about each quilt that was brought in. We never intended to fully document the one thousand quilts that we saw, and in the end, we chose forty-four that represented the breadth of Kentucky quiltmaking to be shown in the exhibition "Kentucky Quilts: 1800-1900." The exhibition appeared first at the Louisville Museum of History and Science in 1983 and then at twelve other museums under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service.4 John Finley, one of the authors of the accompanying catalog, extensively researched these quilts and the families from which they came. First published in 1983, Kentucky Quilts: 1800-1900" told the story of this first large-scale documentation effort.

Because this was a pioneering effort, the concepts were new. As Eleanor Bingharn Miller, one of the founders, stated: "We worked for pleasure, without dreaming what a landmark project in the history of quilt scholarship this survey would become. From the beginning, however, our goal was to conduct the survey according to the highest scholarly standards. Because we were doing this for ourselves, we approached this in the way that we approach the rest of our academic lives. We also wanted to leave precise records for any future groups which might become interested in what we had done."5

Of course, there are things we could have done differently. Could we have done more complete documentation? Absolutely! Could we have done a better job of oral history? Yes! Within our group were people with fundraising expertise, public relations savvy, legal skills, and business management and accounting experience. Also on-board were volunteers, quilt enthusiasts, scholars, makers, and others. We recognize the importance of the volunteer "support" effort, but if we hadn't had adequate funding, if we hadn't gotten the national publicity, if we hadn't produced a quality catalogue, the project could not have energized other groups as it did.

Because of our professional approach, we made everybody's job easier. We gave birth, but we don't claim ownership. We are very proud of our role.6 We put all of our energy, our intellect, and our resources into the project, and we made it happen.7 Many groups that followed did it better or more completely. Some changed direction and made significant advances in the study and methodology for quilt scholarship.

The Projects Evolve

By 1984, eleven other quilt projects were officially underway. Between 1985 and 1988, thirty more were established, with eleven begun in 1987 alone. During these years, there were approximately 1, 015 Quilt Days held among all the projects, making 1985 through 1988 the peak years for state quilts projects.8

Data gathering in most states concentrated on sampling quilts from the entire state; other projects, however, consciously limited their scope. For example, Arkansas targeted the region of the Ozark counties. New Mexico focused on the Hispanic quiltmaking tradition in Taos County. Kentucky concentrated on nineteenth-century quilts, while other states elected to include more contemporary quilts. South Carolina, for instance, documented quilts made through 1970. Nebraska chose 1920, a year that coincides with the end of the Homestead Act's influence on the state's settlement.

Some projects have widened their geographical boundaries. Those in Oklahoma, Kansas, and Montana, settled in the late nineteenth century, see patterns of immigration, and turned up quilt made earlier in Kentucky, Ohio, or Pennsylvania that would have have been missed in their home-state surveys. Interest in regional differences generated by the projects was the impetus for the development of a conference in Washington, D.C., in March 1995.9

Once the data was collected and an exhibition or book followed, many states felt that their task was complete. Some states, however, chose to continue quilt study and outreach. The Texas Quilt Search, after compiling data on quilts from the state's first hundred years, went on to have an additional search, exhibition, and book about quilts made between 1936 and 1986.10 In an effort to ensure that the quiltmaking tradition would be carried on by the next generation, the Arizona Quilt Project developed an educational program called "Quilt-Ed," which they tested on thirty fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade classes during the winter of 1988.

Influences on the Projects

There is no such thing as a "typical" quilt project---the shape of each project is deeply influenced by the interests and backgrounds of its organizers and the goals they set for the project. Many projects are initiated, directed, and staffed by volunteers, whose original qualifications include little academic or on-the-job experience. In the end, according to some project directors, energy and organizational skill, a curiosity about women's history, and love of quilts make up for the lack of formal training.

Organizers who are folklorists or historians have put together projects and books with different focuses. The Tennessee Quilt Project, for instance, emphasized local history. Sponsorship of the New York Quilt Project by the Museum of American Folk Art raised projects to a new level of scholarship and visibility, as did the inclusion of academics, historians, folklorists, and contemporary quilters on the New York Project's panel of consultants. "There isn't one single point of view associated with quilts," explained Phyllis Tepper, the New York Quilt Project's director. "We've tried to give representation to all these various viewpoints."11

As early as 1982, the quilt project movement went international, with Australia being the first foreign country to feature projects of its own.12 Nine projects are in progress or complete in Canada, with three more in the preliminary phase. New Zealand, South Africa, and Ulster(North Ireland) have projects in progress, and a second project is underway in Australia. The United Kingdom has completed the first project in Europe, and an excellent new publication, Quilt Treasures:The Quilters Guild Heritage Search, has resulted from the work done there.13 As we look more closely at the European origins of American quiltmaking, this publication will prove invaluable.

The Conferences

Over the past fifteen years, conferences have played a major role in bringing together representatives of the projects to discuss a wide range of topics. In 1984, Katy Christopherson, organizer of volunteers for The Kentucky Quilt Project, and Ricky Clark of Ohio cohosted a meeting in Knoxville, Tennessee, to take advantage of the American Quilt Study Group (AQSG) meeting held there at the same time. The purpose of this meeting was to refine the data-collecting methodology. With the use of computer documentation and better research methods, the hope was that the projects would become more consistent and thorough and that they could develop and perfect the "ultimate" data form.14 This has continued to be an elusive objective.

In 1989, a seminar was held at The Great American Quilt Festival, sponsored by the Museum of American Folk Art. The aim of this seminar---which was called "Quilt Projects from Kentucky to New York to the Future: A Decade of Growth and Development" and was organized by Phyllis Tepper and myself---was to initiate discussions about the first ten years of projects, their evolution, and the future of the information they generated. Surveys were sent out; thirty-one projects responded. The resulting data was shared with more than fifty project representatives who attended the session.15

On June 10, 1993, a Quilt Project Leadership meeting was held at the same time as the National Quilt Symposium Oral Traditions Project at Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Of the project leaders invited to participate, thirty-two people who had initiated and directed quilt surveys in twenty-six projects convened to share information and methods and to discuss common problems and future directions. Two of the important areas discussed were the use of and access to the data collected by these projects and the possibilities for a publication to be planned by the leadership to document and interpret the quilt survey movement.

Perspectives

Much has been written about the benefits of quilt projects for volunteers conducting the surveys. Being a part of these historic events was a defining moment for many of them. The projects reaffirmed their own good judgment; they were interested in quilts and it was now their time in the limelight.

The quilt projects---with volunteers gathering information from family, local archives, and women's histories---have trained and inspired many women to go in new directions and focus on personal goals. Another important gain is an increased respect for quilts and their origins. Collectors are now more aware of the history of the maker than they were previously.16 In an article entitled "Rethinking Quilt Projects: A Folklorists Perspective," Laurel Horton, folklorist and president of the AQSG, discusses quilt projects as training ground for students in textiles, museum curating, history, community organizing, quiltmaking, folklore, and other related fields.17

The Struggles

In the world of quilts, groups are struggling with one another over issues of power, gender, and "academy versus non-academy." Knowledge about these issues is critical to understanding the quilt project movement. Everyone has something at stake. The need exists for access to different and competing forms of scholarship. Competing theories are healthy for the field. Most revolve around two issues: methodology and politics.

Methodology:

Surveys recording this country's arts and crafts are not new. Before quilt projects, the major effort to document folk art was initiated during the Depression. The Works Progress Administration organized the Index of American Design, commissioning artists to record important classic Americana, including quilts. While this was one of the most ambitious undertakings ever conceived in the realm of the arts, it included only thirty-five states and unfortunately did not include many areas of culture beyond the reach of urban centers. Even with these omissions, the pictorial research material in the Index is a major source of information about our artistic history. Studying the Index gave me a point of reference for considering the imperfections of various methodologies used in quilt projects and allowed me to acknowledge the projects' deficiencies as part of their evolutionary process.

In 1990, in a discussion entitled "Future Trends and Quilt Research: Implications for Fieldwork," Joyce Ice, a panelist at the American Folklore society, called for a review of project methods and goals. Folklorists from around the country looked at quilt projects from their perspectives and articulated a number of concerns. Patricia J. Keller wrote that "through systematic and rigorous application of analytical methodology, quilt scholars contribute meaningfully to a new, holistically balanced interpretation of women's lives and Western society, past and present. It is time to move beyond mass documentation efforts and 'quilts with stories' anthologies to more comprehensive historical reconstruction and to write the histories that scholar Virginia Gunn has heralded as 'the fourth era of quilt scholarship'."20 Keller further says, "Most current strategies of classification are unsystematic, with significant areas lacking a common appropriate nomenclature. Adoption of a more uniform and exact classification scheme should be considered a major item of unfinished business in the development of a rigorous discipline of quilt study."21

Regardless of issues of methodology, the documentation effort needs to continue in at least one other important area: Oral histories of elderly living quilt makers need to be gathered as quickly as possible.

Politics:

Political struggles revolve around issues of gender and "academy versus non-academy." Lorre Weidlich calls it "different world views" because quilt scholars define themselves by their subject matter without or despite academic training, and the academically trained scholars refer to their formal training with quilts as one of their scholarly interests. Because quilts typically reside in the feminine domestic sphere, it is the opinion of some that scholars researching quilts have been held back by their choice of subject matter. Weidlich cites a model by anthropologist Michele Z. Rosaldo, who suggests that there are two ways for women to gain power: move into the male-dominated public sphere or establish a female public sphere. They can do this by creating a sense of rank, order, and value in which women prevail.22 Many quilt scholars would confirm that quilt scholarship is one role in a complex women's sphere that provides that provides multiple opportunities of the women that inhabit it. This suggests that the function of of quilt scholarship within the quilt world is expressive. Self definitions like "quilt scholar," which are meaningless to academics, provide a recognizable and respected role within the quilt world. The documentary impulse of quilt world research becomes understandable as the attempt to construct a history that legitimizes and reinforces a particular world view. According to Weidlich, "Ultimately, it is an examination not so much of the content of quilt world scholarship as of its existence and the value system that informs it that will teach us most about the meaning that underlies the world of quilting today."23

New Approaches

In 1990, the directors of The Kentucky Quilt Project decided that a group of events illustrating and furthering the extraordinary of developments in the field over the past two decades would be an appropriate way to celebrate the twentieth anniversary of the historic exhibition "Abstract Design in American Quilts," which opened in 1971 at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York City. "Louisville Celebrates the American Quilt" ran for seven months beginning in November 1991. This celebration served as a vehicle to address issues of concern to all interested in quilts in the United States and abroad and to establish goals, priorities, and methods for coming decades of quilt study and appreciation. There were six exhibitions, four conferences, and other sundry associated events designed to further quilt scholarship in specific areas.24

In 1992, the first issue of The Quilt Journal: An International Review, was published by The Kentucky Quilt Project, Inc. Its mission is to facilitate the work of those around the world who will be coming to quilt research from other fields with different visions. Looking at the future of quilt scholarship as interdisciplinary and international, it hopes to "further quilt scholarship by publishing the work of scholars of all fields who have something of importance to say about quilts and quilting." 25

In 1993, Keller, who was director of the Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, quilt documentation project from its founding in 1988 to 1993, and her steering committee felt that such a survey offered a unique opportunity for collecting and interpreting social and historical data. To fully exploit these possibilities, Keller assembled a distinguished multidisciplinary body of scholars and subjected the survey's design, methodologies, and interpretive potential of collected data to their scrutiny and suggestions. This was the first time such an approach had been applied to a quilt documentation project.26

At its inception, the quilt project movement was virtually a white middle-class women's movement. Very few projects addressed women of color and Native American populations. Similar criticisms were leveled at feminism in the early 1970s. It is clear that work is broadening in these areas. The Michigan State University Museum, in collaboration with the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) and Atatl (a national professional American Indian artists service organization), is developing a major exhibition in Native Hawaiian and North American Indian communities. Scheduled to open at the NMAI's Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House exhibit facility in 1997, the exhibition will place the various specific quilt-making traditions in the larger continuum of American Indian culture and other American quiltmaking traditions. Marsha McDowell, Michigan Quilt Project director of the Michigan Traditional Arts Program at the Michigan State University Museum, explained the project this way:

"Of the various American Indian art forms that resulted from contact with Euro-American missionaries and settlers, perhaps the least well known is quiltmaking. However, throughout the entire post-contact period, native quilts in the Hawaiian Islands and on the North American continent have used colors and designs distinctly their own to make quilts which function in ways both similar to other cultural groups as well as in ways that have specific native cultural or pan-American meanings. To date there has been no single exhibition which examines the 'whole cloth' of native quiltmaking. The complex research plan developed and implemented for this project includes a national advisory committee and extensive collaboration with quilters, elders, and cultural specialists in local communities. Archival, museum, and field-based research, along with a series of 'Quilt Discovery Days' at American Indian events, tribal centers, or museums has already yielded a wealth of information that will provide the basis for many other future research, exhibition, and education projects."

It is clear from the above description of the American Indian project that as more academically trained scholars enter the arena, such projects are becoming increasingly interpretive and complex. This is good news for all. One can sense new energy as the intensified level of the discourse raises new questions and develops new ideas and concepts for quilt study.

Accessibility to the information, history, research, records of the early quiltmakers, early diaries, and all other information about quilts and quiltmaking will be the key to the success of the future projects. In early 1993, the founders of the first two quilt projects, Eunice Ray and I from Kentucky and Karey Bresenhan and Nancy O'Bryant from Texas, joined together to form a non-profit organization, The Alliance for American Quilts, to further two specific goals that would be of benefit to those interested in quilts, both in the United States and abroad: The Center for The Quilt, a facility for the study of all aspects of quilts, and The International Quilt Index, a computerized database of quilt-related materials from all media.

The Center for The Quilt would develop as an international resource---a collective memory bank for all that is known and remembered about quiltmakers, quilt artists, and their quilts, and an active source of educational programming and outreach for the preservation and dissemination of quilt history. Easy and unlimited access to a growing to a growing body of quilt information at The Center will be a high priority, and the audience for this information should be broad, reaching not only members of the quilt world, but also scholars, educators, students, and the general public. The Center will also be developed as an inclusive project, working to join quilts, artists, and scholars.

As a part of the Index, the Alliance anticipates gathering the full range of information available in quilting and quilt-related fields; the Alliance would serve as a repository for information. Hosted by the Library of Congress, American Folklife Center, in Washington D.C., sixteen advisors with perspectives from a variety of fields, including art historians, artists, folklorists, museum curators, and quilters met in August 1995 to discuss the mission of The Center and The Index and how to launch a comprehensive plan for their development.

The Center is an ambitious and compelling idea.27 The challenge is to bring together the creative people, resources, information, and hard work that would make the idea a reality. That the Alliance is able to contemplate this challenge is a recognition of the many individuals and organizations that have worked with quilts for the last thirty years. This can be the project of all projects, a legacy for future generations that we can accomplish together, regardless of our quilt politics.

As a result of fifty-six state, regional, and international quilt projects, documentation has been completed on over 157,000 quilts at more than 1,450 Quilt Days, spawning at least fifty exhibitions and forty-five books. It can safely be said that the quilt project movement is the largest grassroots phenomenon in the twentieth century. These projects have contributed significantly to a global understanding of the quilt as a cultural icon. I believe that in the twenty-first century there will be even greater worldwide interest, awareness, and understanding of the quilt and its role in people's lives.28

For a list of projects, including detailed exhibition and publication information, please write to:
The Kentucky Quilt Project
P.O. Box 6251
Louisville, KY 40206

 

References

1 See Editors' Notes to Patricia J. Keller's "Approaching Analysis: The Lancaster County Quilt Harvest, " The Quilt Journal:An International Review, vol. 3, no. 1 (1994), p. 10.

2 The Kentucky Quilt Project's original directors were Shelly Zegart, Eleanor Bingham Miller, and Eunice Ray.

3 Leman, Bonnie, "The Needle's Edge," Quilter's Newsletter Magazine, no. 234 (July/August 1991), p. 4. "Ten years ago in July 1981, The Kentucky Quilt Project held its first quilt day. The organizers of that project were not the first to interview people about their quilts in private collections, but they were the first to organize a public event as part of a regional quilt survey. The Kentucky people developed the basic structure of a statewide project: they gave us a name for what they were doing (many if the states and regions use the word 'project' in their title), and they inspired people around the world to survey the quilts in their own areas."

4 Kentucky Quilts 1800-1900, See p. 81 for additional information on the history of The Kentucky Quilt Project, Inc. This catalog is now in its third printing and has sold over 28,000 copies.

5 Miller, Eleanor Bingham, "Since Kentucky: Surveying State Quilts 1981-1991," Expanding Quilt Scholarship: The lectures, conferences, and other presentations of Louisville Celebrates the American Quilt, Shelly Zegart and Jonathan Holstein, eds. (Louisville, Ky.:The Kentucky Quilt Project, Inc., 1994), p. 13

6 Zegart, Shelly, "Since Kentucky: Surveying State Quilts 1981-1991," Expanding Quilt Scholarship: The lectures, conferences, and other presentations of Louisville Celebrates the American Quilt, Shelly Zegart and Jonathan Holstein, eds. (Louisville, Ky.: The Kentucky Quilt Project, Inc., 1994), p. 16. "The Kentucky survey was thoroughly planned at the start and well managed along the way and, as a consequence, was very successful. It created such features as quilt discovery days used later by other state projects. Its methods and results received national publicity. Between March 1983 and July 1985, I lectured to 27 interested groups in 15 states on the aims, methods, and results of The Kentucky Quilt Project. The articles, exhibitions and lectures effectively informed the country that such surveys were possible and could yield significant results." (As quoted from Abstract Design in American Quilts: A Biography of an Exhibition, by Jonathan Holstein, published by the Kentucky Quilt Project, 1991.)

7 For the most recent article on the Kentucky Quilt Project, see George Muller Lockwood, "History's Mirrors: The Kentucky Quilt Project Revisited After 15 Years, Still Going Strong and Growing," Patchwork Quilts, (August/September 1995), pp. 5-9, 58. See also Zegart, op. cit., p. 17.

8 Data collected from the appendices of Gatherings: America's Quilt Heritage, catalog of the exhibition of the same name, text by Kathlyn F. Sullivan and appendices by Katy Christopherson, published by American Quilter's Society, Paducah, Kentucky, 1995. It should be noted that some projects chose not to participate in Gatherings for a variety of reasons. Therefore, before using information in this publication as a basis for future analysis, one must take this into consideration.

9 The Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American History, with support from the American Quilt Defense Fund, presented "What's American About American Quilts? A Research Forum on Regional Characteristics," on March 18-19 1995, in Washington, D.C. This two-day program examining ethnic, cultural, and regional diversity in quilts throughout the country explored such topics as immigrant traditions, cultural styles, and regional characteristics reflected in American quilts, and examined the ethnic and geographical influences through which a stunning array of styles has evolved.

10 Both were projects of the Texas Sesquicentennial Quilt Association, led by Karey Bresenhan and Nancy O'Bryant.

11 Zegart, op. cit., p. 18, quote from an interview with Phyllis Tepper in preparation for a lecture.

12 Information on international projects was gleaned from back issues of the Canadian Quilt Study Group newsletter, Cover Stories, by editor Nancy Cameron Armstrong. She responded on short notice to my request and I gratefully thank her for her participation in this project. When the complete list of project information is published in a future issue of Folklore, I will include her well-researched international information.

13Quilt Treasures: the Quilters' Guild Heritage Search (London, England: A Deidre McDonald Book in association with the Quilters' Guild, 1995).

14 Sullivan, Kathlyn, Gatherings: America's Quilt Heritage, (Paducah, Ky., American Quilter's Society, 1995), p. 16. This book's mission was to present a comprehensive picture of the volunteer phenomenon of the quilt project movement; therefore, it is hard to explain the omission of any mention of two major conferences about quilt projects. Only one quilt project conference was mentioned in this publication.

15 Zegart, Shelly, "Quilt Projects: From Kentucky to New York and Into the Future," Antique Review, vol. 15, no. 4 (April 1989), p. 32.

16 Leman, op.cit.

17 Horton, Laurel, "Rethinking Quilt Projects; A Folklorists Perspective," The Quilt Journal: An International Review, vol. 1, no. 1 (1992), p. 11.

18 Pilgrim, Paul, and Gerald Roy, Gatherings: America's Quilt Heritage, (Paducah, Ky., American Quilter's Society, 1995), p. 11.

19 Pilgrim and Roy, op. cit. I was surprised to note the omission of information on the additional phases of two projects with which I am familiar, specifically the two projects of Texas Sesquicentennial Quilt Association and the continuing phases of The Kentucky Quilt Project, both of which were completed well before publication deadlines.

20 Keller, Patricia J., "Methodology and Meaning: Strategies for Quilt Study," The Quilt Journal: An International Review, vol. 2, no. 1 (1993), p. 3. Quote from lecture presented by Virginia Gunn at the February 1992 conference "Directions in Quilt Scholarship: Louisville Celebrates the American Quilt," in Louisville, Kentucky.

21 Ibid., p. 4.

22 The current directors are Shelly Zegart, Eleanor Bingham Miller, and Jonathan Holstein. The conference topics included Directions in Quilt Scholarship, the Bibliography Conference (the beginning of the concept for the International Quilt Index), The African-American Quilt and The American Quilt, and Quilts and Collections---Private, Public, and Corporate. Three publications were generated: Always There: The African-American Presence in American Quilts, by Cuesta Benberry: and Expanding Quilt Scholarship: The lectures, conferences and other presentations of Louisville Celebrates the American Quilt, edited from conference transcripts.

25"The Quilt Journal: Mission Statement ," The Quilt Journal: An International review, vol. 3, no. 1 (1992), p. 2.

26 See editor's Notes to Patricia J. Keller's "Approaching Analysis: The Lancaster County Quilt Harvest," The Quilt Journal: An International Review, vol. 1, no. 1 (1994), p. 10.

27 For a summary of the August meeting, more on "What is The Alliance," and biographies on each of the participants in the meeting, write The Alliance for American Quilts, P.O. Box 6251, Louisville, KY 40206.

28 A special thanks to those whose assistance were crucial to the development of this article, Karen Cozine-Kearney, Kathleen Carpenter, Patricia J. Keller, Marsha McDowell, and Lorre Weidlich.

 

Note: Article excerpts are reprinted with generous permission from publisher. All unauthorized use is illegal.